1 strong liquor flavored with juniper berries
3 a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers [syn: cotton gin]
4 a form of rummy in which a player can go out if the cards remaining in their hand total less than 10 points [syn: gin rummy, knock rummy]
1 separate the seeds from (cotton) with a cotton gin
- , /dʒɪn/, /dZIn/
- Rhymes with: -ɪn
Etymology 1Aphetism of engin.
Etymology 2Abbreviation of geneva or alternatively from genever from the genevre, from juniperus. Hence Gin rummy first attested 1941.
- Chinese: 金酒
- Estonian: džinn
- Online Etymology Dictionary}}
Etymology 3From language
Gin is a spirit flavoured with juniper berries. Distilled gin is made by redistilling white grain spirit which has been flavoured with juniper berries. Compound gin is made by flavouring neutral grain spirit with juniper berries without redistilling and can be considered a flavoured vodka.
The most common style of gin, typically used for mixed drinks, is London dry gin. London dry gin is made by taking a neutral grain spirit (usually produced in a column still) and redistilling after the botanicals are added. In addition to juniper, it is usually made with a small amount of citrus botanicals like lemon and bitter orange peel. Other botanicals that may be used include anise, angelica root and seed, orris root, licorice root, cinnamon, coriander, and cassia bark.
Distilled gin evolved from the Dutch spirits jonge- and oude- Jenever or Genever (young and old Dutch gin), Plymouth gin, and Old Tom gin. Compound gin is gin made by adding the juniper flavouring to the neutral spirit with no redistillation. Sloe gin is a common ready-sweetened form of gin that is traditionally made by infusing sloes (the fruit of the blackthorn) in gin. Similar infusions are possible with other fruits, such as damsons (See Damson gin).
A well-made gin will be relatively dry compared to other spirits. Gin is often mixed in cocktails with sweeter ingredients like tonic water or vermouth to balance this dryness.
HistoryGin originated in the Netherlands in the 17th century. Its invention is often credited to the physician Franciscus Sylvius. It was sold in pharmacies and used to treat such medical problems as kidney ailments, lumbago, stomach ailments, gallstones, and gout. It spread to England after the Glorious Revolution put William of Orange on the British throne. Dutch gin, also known as jenever or genever, is a distinctly different drink from English-style gin; it is distilled with barley and sometimes aged in wood, giving it a slight resemblance to whisky. Schiedam, in South Holland, is famous for its jenever. Jenever is produced in a pot still and is typically lower in alcohol and more strongly flavoured than London gin.
Gin became popular in England after the government allowed unlicensed gin production and at the same time imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits. This created a market for poor-quality grain that was unfit for brewing beer, and thousands of gin-shops sprang up throughout England. By 1740 the production of gin had increased to six times that of beer, and because of its cheapness it became extremely popular with the poor. Of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London, over half were gin-shops. Beer maintained a healthy reputation as it was often safer to drink the brewed ale than unclean plain water. Gin, though, was blamed for various social and medical problems, and it may have been a factor in the higher death rates which stabilized London's previously growing population. The reputation of the two drinks was illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane (1751). This negative reputation survives today in the English language, in terms like "gin-mills" to describe disreputable bars or "gin-soaked" to refer to drunks, and in the phrase "Mother's Ruin," a common British name for gin.
The Gin Act 1736 imposed high taxes on retailers and led to riots in the streets. The prohibitive duty was gradually reduced and finally abolished in 1742. The Gin Act 1751 was more successful, however. It forced distillers to sell only to licensed retailers and brought gin-shops under the jurisdiction of local magistrates. Gin in the 18th century was produced in pot stills, and was somewhat sweeter than the London gin known today.
In London in the early eighteenth century, gin sold on the black market was prepared in illicit stills (of which there were 1500 in 1726) and was often adulterated with turpentine and sulfuric acid. http://books.guardian.co.uk/reviews/history/0,6121,725676,00.html As late as 1913 Webster's Dictionary states without further comment that 'Common gin is usually flavored with turpentine.' http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=246150
The column still was invented in 1832, and the "London dry" style was developed later in the 19th century. In tropical British colonies, gin was used to mask the bitter flavour of quinine, a protection against malaria, which was dissolved in carbonated water to form tonic water. This was the origin of today's popular gin and tonic combination, even though quinine is no longer used against malaria, nor would it be necessary for the majority of today's consumers of the drink.
Gin is a popular base spirit for many mixed drinks, including the martini. Secretly produced "bathtub gin" was commonly available in the speakeasies and "blind pigs" of Prohibition-era America due to the relative simplicity of the production method. Gin remained popular as the basis of many cocktails after the repeal of Prohibition.
Cocktails with ginGin is often combined with a number of other mixers.
Brands of gin
- Fleischmann's Gin - Marketed as the original American gin, first distilled in 1870
- The Much-lamented Death of Madam Geneva: The Eighteenth-century Gin Craze
gin in Arabic: جن (مشروب كحولي)
gin in Catalan: Ginebra (licor)
gin in Danish: Gin
gin in German: Gin
gin in Spanish: Gin
gin in French: Gin (boisson)
gin in Italian: Gin
gin in Hebrew: ג'ין
gin in Lithuanian: Džinas
gin in Dutch: Gin
gin in Norwegian: Gin
gin in Norwegian Nynorsk: Gin
gin in Polish: Gin
gin in Portuguese: Gim
gin in Kölsch: Gin
gin in Romanian: Gin
gin in Russian: Джин (напиток)
gin in Simple English: Gin
gin in Finnish: Gini
gin in Swedish: Gin
gin in Ukrainian: Джин (напій)
gin in Japanese: ジン_%28蒸留酒%29
gin in Chinese: 琴酒
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